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Understanding Spectrum allocation in Layman's way

The spectrum allocation means giving license to telecom operator like Vodafone, Airtel to use particular frequency in particular circle i.e. states.

example : if you ever tuned Mirchi 98.5FM to listen songs, then actually you are setting to 98.5 frequency which is particularly allocated to Mirchi FM. That means Mirchi FM sending frequencies at 98.5MHz. No other player is allowed to send frequency at 98.5Mhz because it is already allocated to  Mirch FM and to avoid interference.

Lets go back to our topic, in telecom,  actually different spectrum allocated to difference bands.

example : 2G at 900 MHz to 1800 MHz
          3G at 2100 MHz
          4G at 2300 MHz
          4G LTE at 600 MHz

With high frequency, more cycle per second means more bits are transferred.But you increases frequency , your speed and transferred increase but you coverage reduces. That why when you are using 3G at home , sometimes speed decreases though range is full and even you can call to other.

Simple say is that low frequencies penetrate buildings much better than high frequencies.
To overcome this , 4G LTE is introduced with low frequency , high transmission. It is based on combination of both Time Division Multiplexing and Frequency Division Multiplexing.

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